School Start Time Research

 School Start Time Research Overview (PDF copy of image above)


School Start Time and Sleep Research

Cherry Creek, CO (2019)

Changing School Start Times: Outcomes Evaluation Update Presentation to the CCSD Board of Education

Summary of Preliminary Results

  • Middle School Students (n=12,550) attendance in morning study sessions – 3.6-5.8%

  • ES students :13 less nightly sleep vs :31 and :48 more for MS and HS – grade 3-11 student reports; parent reports similar

  • ES :15 increase in weekend oversleep vs. :38 and :50 decrease in MS and HS (9-11th grade weekend oversleep moved from clinically significant average pre to not clinically significant average post)

  • Percent students obtaining sufficient sleep (9+ hours ES; 8+ hours MS/HS): Student reported - ES 3.1% decrease; MS 20.8% increase; HS 34% increase; Parent reported - ES 1.0% decrease; MS 21.2% increase; HS 32.2% increase

Social Emotional – in past 7 days, % of students always or almost always feeling … (pre-post reports)

  • ES sad – no change; nervous - .5% decrease; worried .6% decrease
  •  MS sad – .4% decrease; nervous - 1.6% decrease; worried 2.6% decrease

  •  HS sad – 4.6% decrease; nervous – 6.1% decrease; worried 8.9% decrease

  •  Tiredness – in past 7 days % of students % of students always or almost always feeling … (pre-post reports)

  • Too tired for schoolwork ES 2.4% increase; MS 8.2% decrease; HS 18.3% decrease

  • Alert first period MS 7.0% increase; HS 16% increase

  • Prepared for first period MS 8.6% increase; HS 15.8% increase

  • Parent sleep decreased :06 ES; increased :12-:18 MS/HS

  • Staff ES no change; MS increased :12; HS increased :21

  • Staff transport increased :06

Adolescent Sleep Research

Weaver, et al: "Dose-Dependent Associations Between Sleep Duration and Unsafe Behaviors Among US High School Students," 8/2018

Sleepmore in Seattle: Later school start times are associated with more sleep and better performance in high school students”Science Advances, 12/2018

"Digital Media and Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence"2017

"Problems Associated With Use of Mobile Devices in the Sleep Environment—Streaming Instead of Dreaming," 10/2016

School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: a Review of the Literature”, 5/2016

"National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations", Journal of the National Sleep Foundation2015

“School Start Time Change: An In-Depth Examination of School Districts in the United States,” 12/2014

Examining the Impact of Later High School Start Times on the Health and Academic Performance of High School Students: A Multi-Site Study,” 2/2014

AAP Policy Statement: School Start Times for Adolescents," 8/2014

Elementary Sleep Research

Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Keller, Peggy S. et al, Journal of Educational Psychology, online June 16, 2014  [Response to Keller from Judy Owens]

School start time changes and sleep patterns in elementary school students,” Appleman, Sleep Health, 2015

The Association Between Elementary School Start Time and Students’ Academic Achievement in Wayzata Public Schools,” Dupuis, 2015

Earlier School Start Times as a Risk Factor for Poor School Performance: An Examination of Public Elementary Schools in the Commonwealth of Kentucky,” Keller, Journal of Educational Psychology, 2015

Elementary Feedback on Changed Start TImes,” Wahlstrom, Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, 1998

Sleep and Athletics

"How School Start Times Affect High-School Athletics", The Atlantic. 4/2017

Middlesex League Superintendents support and commitment to later high school start times3/2016

Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association (MIAA) Sports Medicine Committee endorsement of AAP’s 8:30 or later start timeMIAA,12/2016 (MIAA is the governing body for Massachusetts high school sports)


The Dover Sherborn Public Schools do not discriminate on the basis of age, race, color, sex/gender, gender identity, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability, or homelessness.

  • Dover-Sherborn Public Schools
  • 157 Farm Street, Dover, MA 02030
  • Phone (508) 785-0036
  • Fax (508) 785-2239
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